University of Ferrara (Italy)
The first European peopling: migration routes and behaviour
The history of prehistoric Europe is relatively short if compared to Africa. The firsts well dated evidences for the out of Africa are the ones of the Dmanisi site in Georgia, dated to 1,8 Ma (Gabunia, 2000), but from about 1,5 Ma we begin to have several evidences of Homo presence in Italy (Arzarello et al., 2016; Arzarello and Peretto, 2017), France (Despriee et al., 2018) and Spain (Carbonell et al., 2008; Toro- Moyano et al., 2011). Based on the founding, is not easy to really define a technical behaviour of firsts Europeans but we can underlie some similitudes with the African Oldowain (even if in Europe the shaping is a marginal component of lithic assemblages) in what concern the methods and technique of flakes production. The oldest European sites, spanned in a chronological framework between 1 and 1,6 Ma, are united by the exploitation of local raw materials, by a lithic production mainly finalized to flakes debitages by multidirectional and centripetal methods and by relatively short reduction sequences.
Although common trends are visible, the oldest Europeans are also characterized by evidence of local adaptation to the environment in terms of occupational patterns and supply areas.
From where those human groups were coming is still an argument of discussion, as the chronologies of the oldest sites in E and W Europe are very similar. The paleogeographic and paleoecological data, however, let us think that the most likely passage was that for the Near East
Key words: Homo dispersal in Europe; Lithic technology; 1,5 Ma; Pirro Nord.